Sabtu, 14 Januari 2012

Fraktur


Askep Fraktur Femur
Definisi Fraktur Femur
Fraktur femur adalah rusaknya kontinuitas tulang pangkal paha yang dapat disebabkan oleh trauma langsung, kelelahan otot, kondisi-kondisi tertentu seperti degenerasi tulang / osteoporosis.
Anatomi Fisiologi Fraktur
Persendian panggul merupakan bola dan mangkok sendi dengan acetabulum bagian dari femur, terdiri dari : kepala, leher, bagian terbesar dan kecil, trokhanter dan batang, bagian terjauh dari femur berakhir pada kedua kondilas. Kepala femur masuk acetabulum. Sendi panggul dikelilingi oleh kapsula fibrosa, ligamen dan otot. Suplai darah ke kepala femoral merupakan hal yang penting pada faktur hip. Suplai darah ke femur bervariasi menurut usia. Sumber utamanya arteri retikuler posterior, nutrisi dari pembuluh darah dari batang femur meluas menuju daerah tronkhanter dan bagian bawah dari leher femur.
Klasifikasi Fraktur
Ada 2 type dari fraktur femur, yaitu :
1. Fraktur Intrakapsuler; femur yang terjadi di dalam tulang sendi, panggul dan kapsula.
• Melalui kepala femur (capital fraktur)
• Hanya di bawah kepala femur
• Melalui leher dari femur
2. Fraktur Ekstrakapsuler;
• Terjadi di luar sendi dan kapsul, melalui trokhanter femur yang lebih besar/yang lebih kecil /pada daerah intertrokhanter.
• Terjadi di bagian distal menuju leher femur tetapi tidak lebih dari 2 inci di bawah trokhanter kecil.
Patofisiologi Fraktur
Penyebab Fraktur Adalah Trauma
Fraktur patologis; fraktur yang diakibatkan oleh trauma minimal atau tanpa trauma berupa
yang disebabkan oleh suatu proses., yaitu :
• Osteoporosis Imperfekta
• Osteoporosis
• Penyakit metabolik
Trauma
Dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu :
Trauma langsung, yaitu benturan pada tulang. Biasanya penderita terjatuh dengan posisi miring dimana daerah trokhanter mayor langsung terbentur dengan benda keras (jalanan).
Trauma tak langsung, yaitu titik tumpuan benturan dan fraktur berjauhan, misalnya jatuh terpeleset di kamar mandi pada orangtua.
Tanda Dan Gejala Fraktur
• Nyeri hebat di tempat fraktur
• Tak mampu menggerakkan ekstremitas bawah
• Rotasi luar dari kaki lebih pendek
• Diikuti tanda gejala fraktur secara umum, seperti : fungsi berubah, bengkak, kripitasi, sepsis pada fraktur terbuka, deformitas.
Penatalaksanaan Medik Fraktur
• X.Ray
• Bone scans, Tomogram, atau MRI Scans
• Arteriogram : dilakukan bila ada kerusakan vaskuler.
• CCT kalau banyak kerusakan otot.
Traksi
Penyembuhan fraktur bertujuan mengembalikan fungsi tulang yang patah dalam jangka waktu sesingkat mungkin
Metode Pemasangan traksi:
Traksi Manual
Tujuan : Perbaikan dislokasi, Mengurangi fraktur, Pada keadaan Emergency.
Dilakukan dengan menarik bagian tubuh.
Traksi Mekanik
Ada dua macam, yaitu :
Traksi Kulit
Dipasang pada dasar sistem skeletal untuk struktur yang lain, misalnya: otot. Traksi kulit terbatas
untuk 4 minggu dan beban < 5 kg.
Untuk anak-anak waktu beban tersebut mencukupi untuk dipakai sebagai fraksi definitif, bila tidak diteruskan dengan pemasangan gips.
Traksi Skeletal
Merupakan traksi definitif pada orang dewasa yang merupakan balanced traction. Dilakukan untuk menyempurnakan luka operasi dengan kawat metal atau penjepit melalui tulang/jaringan metal.
Kegunaan Pemasangan Traksi
Traksi yang dipasang pada leher, di tungkai, lengan atau panggul, kegunaannya :
• Mengurangi nyeri akibat spasme otot
• Memperbaiki dan mencegah deformitas
• Immobilisasi
• Difraksi penyakit (dengan penekanan untuk nyeri tulang sendi).
• Mengencangkan pada perlekatannya.
Macam – Macam Traksi
Traksi Panggul
Disempurnakan dengan pemasangan sebuah ikat pinggang di atas untuk mengikat puncak iliaka.
Traksi Ekstension (Buck’s Extention)
Lebih sederhana dari traksi kulit dengan menekan lurus satu kaki ke dua kaki. Digunakan untuk immibilisasi tungkai lengan untuk waktu yang singkat atau untuk mengurangi spasme otot.
Traksi Russell’s
Traksi ini digunakan untuk frakstur batang femur. Kadang-kadang juga digunakan untuk terapi nyeri punggung bagian bawah. Traksi kulit untuk skeletal yang biasa digunakan.
Traksi ini dibuat sebuah bagian depan dan atas untuk menekan kaki dengan pemasangan vertikal pada lutut secara horisontal pada tibia atau fibula.
Traksi khusus untuk anak-anak
Penderita tidur terlentang 1-2 jam, di bawah tuberositas tibia dibor dengan steinman pen, dipasang staples pada steiman pen. Paha ditopang dengan thomas splint, sedang tungkai bawah ditopang atau Pearson attachment. Tarikan dipertahankan sampai 2 minggu atau lebih, sampai tulangnya membentuk callus yang cukup. Sementara itu otot-otot paha dapat dilatih secara aktif.
Askep Fraktur Femur

Pengkajian Keperawatan
1. Riwayat keperawatan
a. Riwayat perjalanan penyakit
• Keluhan utama klien datang ke RS atau pelayanan kesehatan
• Apa penyebabnya, kapan terjadinya kecelakaan atau trauma
• Bagaimana dirasakan, adanya nyeri, panas, bengkak
• Perubahan bentuk, terbatasnya gerakan
• Kehilangan fungsi
• Apakah klien mempunyai riwayat penyakit osteoporosis
b. Riwayat pengobatan sebelumnya
• Apakan klien pernah mendapatkan pengobatan jenis kortikosteroid dalam jangka waktu lama
• Apakah klien pernah menggunakan obat-obat hormonal, terutama pada wanita
• Berapa lama klien mendapatkan pengobatan tersebut
• Kapan klien mendapatkan pengobatan terakhir
c. Proses pertolongan pertama yang dilakukan
• Pemasangan bidai sebelum memindahkan dan pertahankan gerakan diatas/di bawah tulang yang fraktur sebelum dipindahkan
• Tinggikan ekstremitas untuk mengurangi edema
2. Pemeriksaan fisik
a. Mengidentifikasi tipe fraktur
b. Inspeksi daerah mana yang terkena
- Deformitas yang nampak jelas
- Edema, ekimosis sekitar lokasi cedera
- Laserasi
- Perubahan warna kulit
- Kehilangan fungsi daerah yang cidera
c. Palpasi
• Bengkak, adanya nyeri dan penyebaran
• Krepitasi
• Nadi, dingin
• Observasi spasme otot sekitar daerah fraktur

Diagnosa Keperawatan pada Fraktur Femur
1. Resiko terjadinya syok s/d perdarahan yg banyak
2. Gangguan rasa nyaman: Nyeri s/d perubahan fragmen tulang, luka pada jaringan lunak, pemasangan back slab, stress, dan cemas, Potensial infeksi sehubungan dengan luka terbuka.
3. Gangguan aktivitas sehubungan dengan kerusakan neuromuskuler skeletal, nyeri, immobilisasi.
4. Kurangnya pengetahuan tentang kondisi, prognosa, dan pengobatan sehubungan dengan kesalahan dalam penafsiran, tidak familier dengan sumber informasi.

Rencana Keperawatan
Diagnosa 1
Resiko terjadinya syok s/d perdarahan yg banyak
Intervensi
Indenpenden:
a)Observasi tanda-tanda vital.
b)Mengkaji sumber, lokasi, dan banyaknya per darahan
c)Memberikan posisi supinasi
d)Memberikan banyak cairan (minum)
Kolaborasi:
a)Pemberian cairan per infus
b)Pemberian obat koagulan sia (vit.K, Adona) dan penghentian perdarahan dgn fiksasi.
c)Pemeriksaan laboratorium (Hb, Ht)
Rasional:
a)Untuk mengetahui tanda-tanda syok sedini mungkin
b)Untuk menentukan tindak an
c)Untuk mengurangi perdarahan dan mencegah kekurangan darah ke otak.
d)Untuk mencegah kekurangan cairan
(mengganti cairan yang hilang)
e)Pemberian cairan perinfus.
f)Membantu proses pembekuan darah dan untuk menghentikan perdarahan.
g)Untuk mengetahui kadar Hb, Ht apakah perlu transfusi atau tidak.
Diagnosa 2
Gangguan rasa nyaman:
Nyeri s/d perubahan fragmen tulang, luka pada jaringan lunak, pemasangan back slab, stress, dan cemas
Intervensi
Independen:
a) Mengkaji karakteristik nyeri : lokasi, durasi, intensitas nyeri dengan menggunakan skala nyeri (0-10)
b) Mempertahankan immobilisasi (back slab)
c) Berikan sokongan (support) pada ektremitas yang luka.
d) Menjelaskan seluruh prosedur di atas
Kolaborasi:
e) Pemberian obat-obatan analgesik
Rasional
a) Untuk mengetahui tingkat rasa nyeri sehingga dapat menentukan jenis tindak annya.
b) Mencegah pergeseran tulang dan penekanan pada jaringan yang luka.
c) Peningkatan vena return, menurunkan edem, dan mengurangi nyeri.
d) Untuk mempersiapkan mental serta agar pasien berpartisipasi pada setiap tindakan yang akan dilakukan.
e) Mengurangi rasa nyeri
Diagnosa 3
Gangguan aktivitas sehubungan dengan kerusakan neuromuskuler skeletal, nyeri, immobilisasi.
Independen:
a) Kaji tingkat immobilisasi yang disebabkan oleh edema dan persepsi pasien tentang immobilisasi tersebut.
b) Mendorong partisipasi dalam aktivitas rekreasi (menonton TV, membaca kora, dll ).
c) Menganjurkan pasien untuk melakukan latihan pasif dan aktif pada yang cedera maupun yang tidak.
d) Membantu pasien dalam perawatan diri
e) Auskultasi bising usus, monitor kebiasa an eliminasi dan menganjurkan agar b.a.b. teratur.
f) Memberikan diit tinggi protein , vitamin , dan mineral.
Kolaborasi:
a) Konsul dengan bagian fisioterapi
Pasien akan membatasi gerak karena salah persepsi (persepsi tidak proposional)
b) Memberikan kesempatan untuk mengeluarkan energi, memusatkan perhatian, meningkatkan perasaan mengontrol diri pasien dan membantu dalam mengurangi isolasi sosial.
c) Meningkatkan aliran darah ke otot dan tulang untuk meningkatkan tonus otot, mempertahankan mobilitas sendi, mencegah kontraktur / atropi dan reapsorbsi Ca yang tidak digunakan.
d) Meningkatkan kekuatan dan sirkulasi otot, meningkatkan pasien dalam mengontrol situasi, meningkatkan kemauan pasien untuk sembuh.
e) Bedrest, penggunaan analgetika dan perubahan diit dapat menyebabkan penurunan peristaltik usus dan konstipasi.
f) Mempercepat proses penyembuhan, mencegah penurunan BB, karena pada immobilisasi biasanya terjadi penurunan BB (20 – 30 lb).
Catatan : Untuk sudah dilakukan traksi.
Untuk menentukan program latihan.
Diagnosa 4
Kurangnya pengetahuan tentang kondisi, prognosa, dan pengo- batan sehubungan dengan kesalahan dalam pe- nafsiran, tidak familier dengan sumber in- formasi.
Independen:
a) Menjelaskan tentang kelainan yang muncul prognosa, dan harapan yang akan datang.
b) Memberikan dukungan cara-cara mobilisasi dan ambulasi sebagaimana yang dianjurkan oleh bagian fisioterapi.
c) Memilah-milah aktifitas yang bisa mandiri dan yang harus dibantu.
d) Mengidentifikasi pelayanan umum yang tersedia seperti team rehabilitasi, perawat keluarga (home care)
e) Mendiskusikan tentang perawatan lanjutan.
Rasional:
a) Pasien mengetahui kondisi saat ini dan hari depan sehingga pasien dapat menentukan pilihan.
b) Sebagian besar fraktur memerlukan penopang dan fiksasi selama proses penyembuhan sehingga keterlambatan penyembuhan disebabkan oleh penggunaan alat bantu yang kurang tepat.
c) Mengorganisasikan kegiatan yang diperlu kan dan siapa yang perlu menolongnya. (apakah fisioterapi, perawat atau keluarga).
d) Membantu meng- fasilitaskan perawatan mandiri memberi support untuk mandiri.
e) Penyembuhan fraktur tulang kemungkinan lama (kurang lebih 1 tahun) sehingga perlu disiapkan untuk perencanaan perawatan lanjutan dan pasien koopratif.
Daftar Kepustakaan
Doenges M.E. (1989) Nursing Care Plan, Guidlines for Planning Patient Care (2 nd ed ). Philadelpia, F.A. Davis Company.
Long; BC and Phipps WJ (1985) Essential of Medical Surgical Nursing : A Nursing Process Approach St. Louis. Cv. Mosby Company.

Kamis, 05 Januari 2012

TATA NAMA SENYAWA ALKANA




TATA NAMA SENYAWA ALKANA

CnH2n+2

*      C1 = Metana
§    C1 = C1H2(1)+2 = CH4
*      C2 = Etana
§    C2 = C2H2(2)+2 = C2H6
*      C3 = Propana
§    C3 = C3H2(3)+2 = C3H8
*      C4 = Butana
§    C4 = C4H2(4)+2 = C4H10
*      C5 = Pentana
§    C5 = C5H2(5)+2 = C5H12
*      C6 = Heksana
§  C6 = C6H2(6)+2 = C6H14
*      C7 = Peptana
§    C7 = C7H2(7)+2 = C7H16
*      C8 = Oktana
§    C8 = C8H2(8)+2 = C8H18
*      C9 = Nonana
§    C9 = C9H2(9)+2 = C9H20
*      C10 = Dekana
§    C10 = C10H2(10)+2 = C10H22


Fungsi unsur-unsur atom di dalam tubuh manusia:  
  • KARBON
Unsur karbon mungkin elemen paling penting untuk kehidupan. Hampir setiap bagian dari tubuh kita dibuat dengan jumlah besar elemen ini. Atom karbon sangat ideal untuk membangun molekul biologis yang besar. Atom karbon dapat dianggap sebagai sebuah blok bangunan dasar. Bangunan blok tersebut dapat melekat satu sama lain untuk membentuk rantai panjang, atau mereka dapat dilampirkan ke unsur lainnya. Kita makan karbon dan tubuh kita menggunakannya untuk struktur dan fungsi sehari-hari kita. Apa pun yang memiliki karbon di dalamnya dianggap organik.
Karbon adalah unsur paling produktif kedua ditemukan didalam tubuh manusia. Karbon dapat diekresikan dari tubuh dalam bentuk karbon dioksida, yang merupakan produk limbah dari respirasi. Karbon juga merupakan komponen utama dari glikosa dan gula lainnya. 
  • HIDROGEN
Fungsi hidrogen dalam tubuh:
ü  Peningkatan aliran darah – Selain bernafas, minum air banyak cara lain untuk mengkonsumsi oksigen, unsur paling penting bagi kehidupan manusia. Darah, pada gilirannya, akan membawa lebih oksigen yang seluruh tubuh.
ü  Penurunan jerawat – Minum air membantu keseimbangan minyak yang kita konsumsi dalam makanan kita. Oleh karena itu, banyak dari minyak yang biasanya dikeluarkan melalui kulit dan menyebabkan jerawat sekarang dibuang melalui buang air besar.
ü  Peningkatan tidur – karena tubuh membutuhkan jumlah yang cukup air untuk melakukan tugas apapun. Minum juga dapat membantu seseorang tidur lebih baik. Lebih banyak oksigen dibawa keluar seluruh tubuh, lebih santai diri sendiri dan membuatnya lebih mudah untuk tertidur dan tetap tidur.
ü  Lebih banyak energi – Karena anda akan lebih rileks dan mendapatkan tidur lebih banyak untuk menyediakan tubuh anda dengan istirahat yang cukup, anda akan memiliki lebih banyak energi untuk menjalani aktivitas sehari-hari anda.
Jadi, seperti yang anda lihat, tanpa air, tubuh kita tidak akan mampu menghasilkan air mata, keringat, darah, dan cairan tubuh lainnya. Dengan minum banyak air setiap hari, anda dapat meningkatkan kehidupan anda dalam banyak cara.
  • OKSIGEN
Fungsi oksigen dalam tubuh manusia:
a)      Untuk pernafasan manusia
b)      Ketika tubuh memiliki oksigen yang cukup, menghasilkan energy enough untuk mengoptimalkan dan menghilangkan limbah baracun terakumulasi dalam jaringan.
c)      Meningkatkan tingkat energy
d)      Meningkatkan stamina dan daya tahan
e)      Meningkatkan penyerapan untuk mineral, asam amino, protein dan nutrisi penting lainnya
f)       Cepat memulihkan keletihan
g)      Menurunkan tingkat jantung istirahat
h)      Membunuh bakteri menular, virus, jamur dan parasit namun tidak merugikan “baik” mikroorganisme yang dibutuhkan tubuh
i)        Meredakan nyeri
j)        Meningkatkan sirkulasi
k)      Tidur yang lebih baik
l)        Memperkuat sistem kekebalan tubuh
m)   Mempertinggi konsentrasi dan kewaspadaan
n)      Meningkatkan metabolism lemak yang menyebabkan hilangnya lemak tubuh
o)      Menenangkan sistem saraf
p)      Meningkatkan memori
q)      Meningkatkan ketidakseimbangan kimia tubuh dalam tubuh
r)       Mempercepat penyembuhan untuk luka
  • NITROGEN
Fungsi nitrogen dalam tubuh manusia:
a)      Mengatur keseimbangan asam basah
b)      Mempercepat proses penyembuhan
c)      Pembentukan enzim
d)      Menyusun +- 50% berat kering organism berupa makromolekul
e)      Sumber energi
f)       Nitrogen adalah unsur penting dalam tubuh. Hal ini memainkan peran penting dalam pencernaan makanan dan pertumbuhan. Ketika seorang wanita hamil, nitrogen dihapus dari makanan selama proses pencernaan diperlukan untuk membantu janin tumbuh dengan baik.



BAGIAN-BAGIAN SEL BESERTA FUNGSINYA:
Membran Plasma               : Sebagai pembungkus sel, yang mengatur materi keluar masuk sel.
Nukleus                              : Berfungsi sebagai pusat pengatur berbagai aktifitas sel.
Sitoplasma                          : Berfungsi sebagai cairan sel yang mengandung protein dan enzim terlarut.
Retikulum Endoplasma     : Berfungsi sebagai sintesis protein, enzim dan lipid.
Badan Golgi                       : Berfungsi sebagai alat transport materi keluar sel dan biosintesis glikoprotein.
Ribosom                              : Berfungsi sebagai tempat berlangsungnya penerjemah kodon untuk menjadi protein .
Lisosom                               : Berfungsi untuk pencernaan sel.
Peroksisom                          : Mengandung enzim untuk memecah asam lemak.
Mitokondria                        : penghasil energi / Atp dalam aspirasi sel.


25 SHORT STORIES

FOREWORD
Thank God and praise Allah SWT gratitude I wish for the presence of 25 papers in English this story. without pleasure and affection as well as his guidance this paper would be finished impossible.
Paper is structured as a builder of student motivation, so interchangeable to take lessons contained in the story. and took the initiative to make all of us to always work in whatever form, they are positive and beneficial to yourself or others.
Finally in accordance with the adage "no ivory that is not cracked," I am expecting suggestions and criticisms, especially to the course tutor English. truth and perfection is only Allah Who Have and Almighty. may allah swt bless us forever.
Amin Ya Rabbal’Alamin.



Langsa, 16 December 2011
  Writer

 SURYA NANDA








Titanic
“It was almost midnight. I was on deck. Suddenly there was a terrible crash. I fell and hit my head. People were screaming and shouting for help. I felt something cold and sticky under my hands. It was a block of ice, covered with blood, my blood. Then I realised what had happened. We had struck in iceberg.”
The Titanic was the biggest, fastest, and most luxurious ship in the world, carrying over 2200 people, both passengers and crew. It has 16 watertight compartments so that the newspapers had called her “unsinkable”.
It departed from Southampton to New York. On the captain’s orders the ship was travelling at top speed. Some of the ship’s officers had warned the captain about icebergs and asked him to slow down, but he wanted to beat the record time for the atlantic crossing.
Many of the passengers were dancing, drinkin, or playing cards when the ship suddenly struck an enormous iceberg. The impact ripped a huge in her side. Great blocks of ice flew across the deck, killing a number of people. Captain smith gave the order to abandon ship: “Women and children first !” Less than three hours later the Titanic had sunk.
Evidence later showed that there were only enough lifeboats for 1200 people, about half the number on board.
The captain used the new SOS distress signal. There was a ship only 15 kilometres away, and the crew saw rockets, but thought the were fireworks sent up from the Titanic. Two hours after the Titanic had sunk, another ship arrived, and 705 peple in lifeboats were saved. They were mainly women and children. Most of those left on board died when the ship sank. It is said that the orchestra, which was playing on deck to keep the passengers calm, carried on until the ship went down.
1513 persons died in the worst Manitime  disaster, including the American millionaires John Jacob Astor, Benjamin Guggenheim, and Isidor Straus.
The sinking of Titanic led to many reforms, such as lifeboat space for every person on a ship, lifeboat drills, the maintenance of a full-time radio watch while at sea, and an internasional ice patrol.

TRAFFIC CONTROL
            The primary aims of all traffic-control systems are to speed the traveler and to ensure each safety. However, the huge cost upgrading traffic-control systems has been a factor in slowing the rate of improvement, but the very size of such systems makes them amenable to the computerization that will eventually program and control the movement of all types of traffic.
            In recent years, fully automatic train control has been introduced, including, for example, conductive cable systems laid between the rails to sense train speed, transmit instruction, and, if necessary, cause them to change speed or stop.
            Some forms of traffic control on roads and highways are simple and relatively inexpensive: these include speed limits, one-way streets, prohibition of turning across oncoming traffic, tidal-flow schemes where lanes are reversed at peak hours, and, above all, clear signs indicating that these controls are in effect. Electric traffic signals were introduced in 1928; today visual control systems are linked to pneumatic vehicle detectors and electronic queue detectors, and signals and television pictures are fed to a central computer control room with human managers, who can take charge in an emergency.
The mode of transportation subject to the most advanced and costly control is aviation. Muct of the world’s airspace over land areas is controlled and is divided into air corridors linking large terminal airspaces. All areas are divided inti flight information Regions, each with a traffic control traffic center and radio communications. Most advanced aircraft have precision navigation systems, such as: VOR (very high frequency  omnidirectional radio), radar navigation. And sytems using the global positioning satellite system (GPS) or the omega network. Thus, aircraft can maintain their position on fixed routes accurately, usually flaying at known and reported flight levels (height above ground.
Sea traffic has been greatly assisted by radar, the development of precision navigation aids such as GPS, and collision-warning system. Despite this, accident and collisions at sea continue to occur, and sea traffic is more in need of proper control than any other  mode of transportation.
BOXING
                With the of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, boxing seemed to disappear, at least as a formal sport. Boxing did not reappear in society until the restoration of the English monarchy in 1660 ushered in amore relaxed moral atmosphere. Allowing the sport with a barbaric history to make a come back. The first mention of a staged fight came in an English news paper in 1681, and the first boxing champion-self-appointed-was Jim Figg, who claimed the title in 1719. James Broughton, a protégé of Figg drew up a set  of rules in 1743 promoting the idea that boxing was a bona fide British sport. Broughton’s rules for bade hitting bellow the waist or hitting an opponent who was down. Although most gloves were still bare-knuckle, Broughton also promoted the use of rudimentary ordinance know as “mufflers”. These regulations remained the standard in the support until they were supplanted by the revised London prize Ring Rules of 1838.
        Despite a 1750 ordinance outlawing prize fighting in great Britain, many members of the nobility believed boxing symbolized the manly virtues of courage, strength, an fair play boxing academies enrolled poets, nobles, and outstanding fighters such as Daniel Mendoza, Tom Cribb, and ‘Gentleman’ John Jackson emerged. But with the rise of middle class and the influence of reform and religious movement during the early 19th century, public approval of boxing sagged New antiprizefight laws were passed, police began stopping fight, and judges prosecuted those involved. Many boxers subsequently emigrated to the United States, hoping to find greater boxing opportunities.

Canoeing and kayaking
            Canoeing and kayaking have roots, to the canoe of the North American Indians and the Eskimo kayak. The origins of the competitive and organized sport, however, can be more formally traced to the founding of the Royal Canoe Club in English in 1866.
        In Britain and some other countries , the term canoe is often used to describe either a canoe or a kayak, although differences do exist between them. A canoeist kneels and uses a single-blade paddle, whereas a kayaker sits and uses a double-blade paddle. A canoe is usually open at the top, whereas the other is enclosed, with a cockpit where the paddler sits.
        The international Canoe Federation has about 100 member nations from 6 continents, many of whom compete at the Olympic level. Competitive canoes and kayaks are classified by a C for Canadian canoe or by a K for kayak, followed by a number that designates the number of persons in the craft. Four basic events are held in it, slalom, in which racers travel a course on whitewater rivers having steep drops and challenging turns around its gates, as in skiing; wildwater, in which they race straight downstream on whitewater rivers; and sprint and marathon, which include varying distances on calmer waters. In international races, the number of competitors in craft a rangers from 1 to 7. Sprints have been in the Olympic Games since 1936 for men, and 1948 for women. Slalom, while not a permanent Olympic sport, was included in 1996 and is planned for 2000
        Paddling a canoe has long been a popular pastime. However, since the 1970s, there has been a dramatic increase in the popularity of whitewater canoeing and kayaking, as well as sea kayaking.

Enjoying White Water Rafting
            Today, the Citarik river is a thriving and interesting centre of water sports. Rafting down the river’s short route takes about three hours, but the long one takes all of six hours to complete.
White water rafting first became known in Indonesia during the early 1970s. “Wanadri” the country’s oldest nature lover’s club, participated in encouraging the growth of the sport by staging the Citarum I and II rallies. Sadly, it has seen many casualties, usually suffered by those facing the perils for the first time and probably lacking a thorough knowledge and understanding of river safety. The newness of the sport may also have been a contributing factor due to t he lack of experience combined with with the lack of the proper techniques required. Nonetheless this has not dissuaded people from taking up white water rafting or made them fearful of trying out this still relatively new and exciting sport.
          Meanwhile, on Citarik river, It was pioneered in 1992, by an adventurous man named Lody who became the first person ever to shoot the rapids on the Citarik using an inflatable rubber boat. Taking advantage of the abundant local resources in the area surrounding the river, in 1995 he formed his company, PT. Lintas Jeram Nusantara.
          Your while water rafting adventure begins with an instruction course on river safety, techniques and other procedures. Participants are requested to look after the river, by not throwing rubbish into it, for example, and making sure that their activities don’t cause environmental damage. When the instruction is over, everyone scrambles into the rubber boat and they push off onto a calm stretch of water.
          The first while water they meet isn’t far from the camp, As they continue rushing downstream, they will pass through many more exciting sports before reaching calm water once again. The left and right, the scenic views are dominated by green rice paddies. Within an hour they arrive at the village of Tangkolo and soon the rafters start off again, now to shoot the most exhilarating of the rapids on the Citarik. The atmosphere is one of excitement as the rubber boat passes by steep-sided banks and  the lovely panoramas slip our of sight, leaving only the raging torrent of the river.
          After two hours or so, the river becomes a lot calmer and the rafters can relax a little as there are no more rapids to face on their trip. Finally, they reach the village of Desa Tonjong, and end their river adventure.

The Princess and the Pea
Once upon a time there was a prince who wanted to marry a princess; but she would have to be a real princess. He travelled all over the world to find one, but nowhere could he get what he wanted. There were princesses enough, but it was difficult to find out whether they were real ones. There was always something about them that was not as it should be. So he came home again and was sad, for he would have liked very much to have a real princess.
One evening a terrible storm came on; there was thunder and lightning, and the rain poured down in torrents. Suddenly a knocking was heard at the city gate, and the old king went to open it.
It was a princess standing out there in front of the gate. But, good gracious! what a sight the rain and the wind had made her look. The water ran down from her hair and clothes; it ran down into the toes of her shoes and out again at the heels. And yet she said that she was a real princess.
Well, we'll soon find that out, thought the old queen. But she said nothing, went into the bed-room, took all the bedding off the bedstead, and laid a pea on the bottom; then she took twenty mattresses and laid them on the pea, and then twenty eider-down beds on top of the mattresses.
 On this the princess had to lie all night. In the morning she was asked how she had slept.
"Oh, very badly!" said she. "I have scarcely closed my eyes all night. Heaven only knows what was in the bed, but I was lying on something hard, so that I am black and blue all over my body. It's horrible!"
Now they knew that she was a real princess because she had felt the pea right through the twenty mattresses and the twenty eider-down beds.
 Nobody but a real princess could be as sensitive as that.
So the prince took her for his wife, for now he knew that he had a real princess; and the pea was put in the museum, where it may still be seen, if no one has stolen it.

Fish and Birds
In a forest there lived two animals were very friendly. The beast is the birds and fish. Both are very close and always help each other. The closeness of the two was not just happen, but through an event that changed them. At that time the fish is resting on the edge of the river. He stared at the tree seeds right on top of it.
          "It seems the seeds good to eat" says fishing in hati.Ia then tried to jump as high to get it. Again and again he jumped, but failed to reach the seeds. It can only be looking at the beans. While we were looking at the grains, distracted by a bird flying back and forth.
          "Lord, why do not you give me wings to fly so I could grab the beans?" Said the fish in the liver.
We leave the fish and turn to birds.
          After flying, the bird then perched on one branch of a tree by the river to rest. At that time he looked into the water. At the bottom of the river water, he saw a lot of worms bergeliatan.
"Apparently the worms good to eat." The word bird in the liver.
          He then tried to get into the water to dive and catch the worms. However, he did not succeed because he could not swim. He then just looked at the worms out of a tree. As I was looking for worms in the water, attention being diverted to the fish swimming in the water.
          "Lord, why do not you give me the tail and fins to swim so I could reach the worms in the water?" Said the bird in the liver.
          Finally, fish and birds know each other their respective difficulties. Many times the fish see the birds diving into water to get the worm. Thus was the bird many times to see fish jumping up to get the grain. Then they met.
"Hey fish, whether you want these seeds? said the bird.
          "True, but I do not have wings so that they can not fly like you get the seeds." Replied the fish.
          "I also want a worm at the bottom of the river, but I've got fins like you so that o can not get worms." Replied the bird.
          "What if you helped me take the beans and I'll help you get the worms at the bottom of the river." Bring the fish.
"Wow great idea, I agree." Replied the bird.
Finally, fish and birds become friends and help each other.

STATE BUTTERFLY


Liza's been three days absent from school because his legs kesleo because of falling off the bike.. Every morning until the afternoon he was at home alone. Bi Imah, her maid, also is returning home to visit his sick grandmother .. Papa and Mama work until the afternoon while Kak Rizka also school until noon. Liza bored all day just reading comics or watching television.

          Liza was blowing that morning to drive away the loneliness pianika on the patio behind the house while filling in the puzzle of a children's magazine. There are three new questions answered Liza in the puzzle. First, what is the name of elephant tusks? Ivory Secondly, what a bear's favorite food? Honey. And third, sea water contains what? Salt. When he tried to play the song Butterfly That's funny, his attention suddenly focused on a butterfly trapped in amber colored glass windows. The butterfly was overwhelmed as he hit the glass window because he wanted to come out causing noise.

          "Poor", whispered Liza heart. He also stopped blowing pianikanya and walked with her hobbled painfully toward the window. Butterfly was more frightened when he saw Liza approached. But Liza opened the window and gently banish those butterflies to get out. The yellow butterflies flew free. Liza returned to his seat to resume his song while completing the puzzle.

          Fun being Liza went on singing, suddenly a yellow butterfly had been there before him. He landed on his lap while Liza-kepakkan wings flapping. And what a surprise when the butterfly was speaking.

          "Thank you Liza. You're a good heart. Usually the children love to chase and catch butterflies, in fact rarely torture and kill me, but you have helped me .. As an expression terimakasihku, I'll take a visit to the Land of Butterflies. Come on Lisa! Follow me! ", Get it while flying butterflies.

          The yellow butterflies fly slowly and followed Liza limped to arrive at a black stone at the corner of the garden.

Cucumber Gold
            In a village there lived an old widow named mbok Sarni. Every day he spends his time alone,   because mbok Sarni did not have a child. Actually he wanted to have children, so that could help him work.
            One afternoon mbok Sarni go into the forest to gather wood, and half way through mbok Sarni met with a very big giant. "Hey, where do you want?", Said the Giant. "I just want to collect firewood, so please allow me through", replied mbok Sarni. "Hahahaha .... You may pass after you gave me a human child to eat ", said the Giant. Then mbok Sarni said, "But I do not have children".
           
After mbok Sarni said that she had no children and wanted to have children, then give him the Giant cucumber seeds. The giant said, "O old woman, I give you seed the cucumber. Plant these seeds in your backyard, and after two weeks you will get a child. But remember, the child handed it to me after the age of six years ".
           
After two weeks, it seems fruitful cucumber is very dense and there is one large cucumber. Mbok Sarni then pick it up, and after the split it turns out it was a very beautiful baby. The infant was then given the name of golden cucumbers.
           
Increasingly golden cucumbers growing big, and mbok Sarni very excited once because his house is not quiet anymore. All work can be completed quickly because the assistance golden cucumbers. Finally, one day the Giant came to collect on the promise. Mbok Sarni very frightened, and did not want to lose the golden cucumbers. Then mbok Sarni said, "O giant, came here two years. The more mature the child is, the more delicious for the meal ". The demon agreed and left the house mbok Sarni.
           
Period of two years is not a long time, so every day looking for reasonable mbok Sarni how so children are not brought the Giant. Heart mbok Sarni very worried, and finally one night dreaming mbok Sarni. In his dream, he was told to meet golden cucumbers hermit on Mt.
            In the morning mbok Sarni golden cucumbers ordered to immediately see hermit. After meeting with the sage, golden cucumber then talked about the purpose of his arrival. The sage then gave him four small packets whose contents cucumber seeds, needles, salt, and shrimp paste. "Throw one at this package, if you're being chased by a giant", ascetic orders. Then cucumber Meas went home, and instantly save a bundle from the hermit.
           
The next morning the giant came back to collect on the promise. "O old woman, where was he? I can not stand to eat it ", cried the Giant. Then mbok Sarni said, "Do not you take a giant O my son, because I really love him. I'd better just what you eat ". Giants do not want to accept an offer from mbok Sarni, and finally outraged. "Where's that? Where golden cucumbers? ", Shouted the giant.
            Because not bear to see mbok Sarni crying, then cucumbers gold out of hiding places. "Here I am a giant, catch me if you can !!!", shouted golden cucumbers.
           
Raksasapun after him, and cucumbers started throwing bags of gold that contains cucumber. Miraculously, the forest becomes dense fields of cucumber fruit. Raksasapun be hampered, because the stems of cucumber wrapped around her body continues. But at last the giant got off too, and began mngejar golden cucumbers again. Then the golden cucumbers sprinkled second bag containing needles, in a flash tumbuhlan bamboo trees are very high and sharp. With bloody feet sticking bamboo because it's a giant continues to pursue.
           
Then the golden cucumbers open third parcel that contains salt. Immediately hutanpun into the ocean. But the sea would be easily passed the giant. The latter eventually sow the Golden Cucumber paste, immediately formed a boiling sea of
​​mud, and the giant splash in it. Raksasapun eventually die.
            Gold cucumber thank God Almighty, because it was saved from a cruel giant. Finally Cucumber Gold and Mbok Sarni live happily and peacefully.

NURSING
          Nursing, in general, is the process of caring for, or nurturing another individual. More specifically, nursing refers to the functions and duties carried out by persons who have had formal education and training in the art and science of nursing. There are two major categories of nurses: licensed practical nurses and registered nurses.
          Professional nurses combine many different disciplines, including aspects of biology and psychology, to promote the restoration and maintenance of health in their clients. Registered nurses help physicians during examinations, treatment, and surgery. They observe, evaluate, and record patients symptoms, administer medications, and provide other care.
          As a member of the largest health care profession in the nation, registered nurses practice wherever people need nursing care, including such common sites as hospitals, homes, schools, workplaces, and community centres, and uncommon areas such as children’s camps, homeless shelters, and tourist sites. Based on outcome desired, nurses intervene to promote health, prevent illness, or assist with activities that contribute to recovery from illness. They may initiate treatments themselves or perform interventions initiated by advanced practice registered nurses or other licensed health care providers.
          Nurses have both dependent and independent functions. The former are those that must be carried out under the orders of a licensed physician or dentist, including such duties as administering medications and changing dressing on wounds. Independent functions are those that must be carried based on their own professional judgment. Such duties include bathing patients, positioning them to prevent joint contraction, teaching people now best to care for themselves, and providing nutritional counseling. In the united states, a nurse’s functions are defined and controlled by the nurse practice act of the state involved.

JOKES AND ANECDOTES
            Mary was very fond of television, so when she met a young man who worked for a television company, she was very interested and asked him a lot of questions. She discovered that he had also worked for a film company, so she asked him whether there was any difference between film work and television work.
        ‘well’, answered the young man, ‘there is one very big difference. If someone makes a mistake while a film is being made, it is, of course, possible to stop and do the scene again. In fact, one can do it over and over again a lot of times. Mistakes waste time, money and film, but the audiences who see the film when it is finished don’t know that anything went wrong. In a live television show, on the other hand, the audience can see any mistakes that are made.
        I can tell you a story about that. One day, a live television show was going on, and one of the actors was supposed to have been shot. He fell to the ground, and the camera moved somewhere else to allow time for me to run out with a bottle of tomato sauce to pour on to him to look like blood. But unfortunately the camera turned back to him before I had finished, and the audience saw me pouring the sauce on to the man.
        “Oh, how terrible !” Mary said. “And what did you do?”
“well,” answered the young man, “Our television director is a very strict man. If anyone makes a mistake, he dismisses him at once. So what could I do? I just had to pretend that this was part of the story, and “ate” the man.

Hepatitis C
            Hepatitis C is an unknown epidemic illness that has been discovered in many individuals for many years. It is only transmitted by direct blood to-blood contact; casual contact and even sexual contact are not believed to transmit the illness. Hepatitis means an inflammation or infection of the liver. Hepatitis C is generally chronic, as opposed to acute. This means that it continues to affect the patient and is not known to have a sudden onset recovery.
        The great majority of people infected with the illness either had a blood transfusion, or experimented with injecting illegal drugs when they were young. There are frequently no symptoms, so the illness is discovered through routine blood tests. It reveals elevated liver enzymes, which caused by any form of hepatitis, by abuse of alcohol, or by other causes.
        Because the illness produces no symptoms, it does not effect the victim’s life, at least at first.  But the constant infection in the liver can eventually lead to cirrhosis of the liver, which is scarring and putting death on portions of the liver. It, in turn, can lead to liver cancer and, ultimately, death. Severe cases can be reversed with a liver transplant. Yet, because the virus may exist in the body for more than 20 years before being discovered, after reviewing the condition of the liver, doctors often suggest waiting and periodically checking the condition. The liver’s condition is determined  by a biopsy, in which a device is inserted into the liver and its condition is viewed. If there is little or no cirrhosis, it is more likely that treatment will be postponed.
        Treatment however, consists of a combination therapy with one drug injected three times a week and another taken orally. It costs hundreds of dollars a week and causes the patient to have symptoms similar to influenza, and some patients suffer more than others.

THE FOREST RANGER’S DREAM
I am a forest ranger. Taking care of forest has been my job for fifteen years. I love  it, eventhough sometimes it can be very dangerous, I could lose my life. In my duties, I groups of illegal loggers and non-serious violations such as littering, graffiting, and camping in illegal places.
I had one bad experience that changed my life forever. It happened three years ago, on a dark cold night…
I was so worried, the weather was hot and three had been no rain for a long time. The trees in the forest were dry as a bone. It would just take a tiny spark to turn the whole forest into a raging sea of fire. Then, in the afternoon from my watchtower high above the trees, I saw a thin spiral of smoke. Fire! I yelled aloud. Fire fighters rushed to the blaze in trucks. Working as fast as they could, the men battled against the blaze with streams of water. They started to chop down trees and dig up the ground to keep the fire from spreading. Then, came the aeroplanes dumping massive amounts of water treated with special chemicals to put off the blazing forest. From other planes came men with parachutes. These men were fire fighters called smoke jumpers. They parachuted into places that men on the ground cannot reach easily. This is very dangerous work because no one can save them if they get into trouble. Finally, in six hours, the firemen had stopped the spread of fire. Thousands of trees had become blackened stumps had been saved.
Then, I heard a terrible ringing sound coming from inside of the trees. Oh my God… it was a horrible dream. People in yellow everywhere, a great fire sparking, aeroplane engines were roaring over my head.
Since the, I am always be careful. Especially when I check the camping area or in the holiday season where many people come to the forest. Not one single active cigarette left or camp fire remains. I will not let the forest fire in my dream come true.

DRUGS AND THE EFFECTS
            Marijuana is a dry, shredded green/brown mix of flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves of the hemp plant, cannabis sativa. It is usually smoked as a cigarette or in a pipe. Marijuana smoke has a strong and distinctive, usually sweet-and-sour odor. There are countless street terms for marijuana including pot, herb, weed, grass, widow, ganja, and hash. Long-term marijuana use leads to an addiction. The short-term effect of marijuana addiction can include problems with memory and learning, difficulty in thinking and problem solving, loss of coordination and increased heart rate smoking marijuana increases the possibility of developing cancer of the head or neck. Marijuana use also has the potential to promote cancer of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory tract because it contains irritants and carcinogens. In fact, marijuana smoke contain 50 to 70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke. Depression, anxiety, and personality disturbances have been associated with marijuana addiction. Students who smoke marijuana get lower grades and are less likely to graduate from high school, compared with their non-smoking friends.
          Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug that is snorted, sniffed, injected or smoked and directly affects the brain. It is also called by the street names coke, snow, flake, blow and others. Cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric and energetic. Cocaine is generally sold on the street as a fine, white, crystalline powder. Street dealers generally dilute it with such substances as cornstarch, talcum powder, sugar, or with such active drugs as procaine ( a chemically related local anesthetic ) or with such other stimulants as amphetamines. Adults 18 to 25 years old  have the highest rate of current cocaine use, compared to other age groups presumably because it is very expensive.
          Common health effects include heart attacks, respiratory failure, and strokes. In some cases, sudden death can occur on the urst use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. Physical effects of cocaine use include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Different means of taking cocaine can produce different adverse effects. Regularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and a chronically runny nose. People who inject cocaine can experience severe allergic reactions and, as with any injecting drug user, are at increased risk for contracting HIV and other blood borne diseases.

FISHERY
            Fisheries are important sources of food, income, jobs, and recreation for people around the world. This is particularly true in island nation, such as Japan and Iceland, where their inhabitants eat seafood as their major source of protein.
          The largest fisheries group is made up of small, open ocean fishes such as herring, sardine, anchovy, and related species. Over 20 percent of the world’s fishery harvest comes from this group, of which Chile and Peru are the leading harvesters. These fish however have relatively low commercial value.
          Another large category of harvested fisher, accounting for nearly 10 percent of the world’s fishery harvest, is the groundfish, or demersal fish, that live near the ocean floor. These generally white-fleshed fishes include cod, haddock, Pollock, and hake. Cod and haddock tend to be relatively high in commercial value, except for the Alaska Pollock for it is less valuable and is often used in the fish sandwiches sold at fast-food restaurants. In addition, there are also flatfish, suck as flounder, halibut, and sole, which live directly on the ocean bottom. This well-known group of fish usually has a high commercial value.
          Several freshwater fisheries are also important. Carp and related freshwater fish are consumed mostly in Asia and parts of Europe. The tilapia, a freshwater or brackish water fish native to Africa, is now being raised globally to add protein to the diets of people in less-developed areas. It is also being sold to meet the growing demand for seafood in countries such as the United States.
          The net it the most common type of fishing equipment. Various kinds of net are used for different kinds of fish. Seine nets encircle entire schools of fish and are used to harvest tuna, salmon, anchovies, and menhaden. Trawl nets are usually shaped somewhat like a cone and are towed behind fishing boats to catch cod, flounder, and shrimp. Gill nets are made with openings that are just large enough for the head of the fish to pass through, hooking the gills into the mesh. This method is often used to catch salmon and herring. Fish traps use nets as underwater fences to guide fish into a holding area from which they cannot exit. This method is particularly useful if the fish are to  be sold life.

Origin of Mount Tangkuban Perahu
            In West Java, Bandung regency precisely in recreation there is a very beautiful place that is Mount Tangkuban Perahu. Tangkuban Boat means a boat that overturned. Named because its shape resembles an inverted boat. It is said that according to folklore parahyangan mountain was indeed an overturned boat. Here is his story.
            Thousands of years ago, the land Parahyangan led by a king and a queen who only had a daughter. Princess named Dayang Sumbi. She was very pretty and intelligent, unfortunately she is very spoiled. On a day when she was weaving on the porch of the palace, Dayang Sumbi felt weak and dizzy.He dropped to the floor of the yarn is spun so many times. When pintalannya fall for the umpteenth time Dayang Sumbi became angry and swore, she would marry anyone who would get pintalannya it. Right after these words were spoken oath, came a dog named magic Tumang and submit it to the hand-spun Sumbi Dayang. So inevitably, in accordance with his oath, Dayang Sumbi should marry the dog.
            Dayang Tumang Sumbi and live happily until they were blessed with a child who is a son of man but have magic powers like his father. This child was named Sangkuriang. In infancy, Sangkuring then accompanied played by a dog named Tumang that he knew only as a faithful dog, not as a father. Sangkuriang grown into a handsome young man and gallant.
            On a day Dayang Sumbi sent his son to go along with his dog to hunt deer for the purposes of any party. After a long search with no results, Sangkuriang feel desperate, but he did not want to disappoint her mother. So with very forced him to take an arrow and aimed it at Tumang. Upon returning home he handed his mother Tumang meat. dayanng Sumbi who thought the meat was venison, was happy for the success of his son.
            Immediately after the party Dayang Sumbi remembered Tumang and asked her son where Tumang located. At first Sangkuriang fear, asceticism he finally said what had happened to her mother. Dayang Sumbi became very angry, the anger he hit Sangkuriang unconscious right on his forehead. For his actions that Dayang Sumbi expelled from the kingdom by his father. Fortunately Sangkuriang blows her mother regained consciousness but leave a scar that is very wide in keningnya.Setelah adult, Sangkuriang went wandering to know the state of the outside world.
            A few years later, Sangkuriang met a very beautiful woman. He soon fell in love with the woman. The woman is her own mother, but they do not recognize each other. Sangkuriang proposed to her, Dayang Sumbi was received with pleasure. The day before the wedding day, when her fiance was stroking her hair, Dayang Sumbi see the wide scar on the forehead Sangkuriang, he finally realizes that she almost married his own son. Knowing that Dayang Sumbi trying to thwart her marriage. After thinking hard she finally decides to propose marriage requirement which can not be granted by Sangkuriang. Condition is: Sangkuriang have to create a dam that can cover the entire mountain, and make a boat to traverse the dam. All that must be completed before dawn.
            Sangkuriang start working. Her love is so great on Sangkuriang gave a strange power. Not to forget he also uses the strength he got from his father to summon the jinn and to help him. With silt and soil they stem the water from the river and springs. Sometime before dawn, Sangkuriang cut down a large tree to make a boat. When Dayang Sumbi see that Sangkuriang almost completed its work, he prayed to the gods to thwart his son's work and accelerate the arrival of the morning.
            Rooster crowed, the sun rises earlier than usual and Sangkuriang realized that he had been deceived. With so angry he cursed Dayang Sumbi and kicked almost a homemade boat to the middle of the forest. The boat had been there in a state upside down, and formed Mount Tangkuban boats (boats that menelungkub). Not far away there stumps of harvested trees remaining Sangkuriang, we now know as the Mount stumps. The dam which created Sangkuriang caused the whole hill filled with water and forms a lake where Sangkuriang and Dayang Sumbi immersed himself and not heard from again until now.

The legend of Lancang
Once upon a time there was a story,
Kampar area in ancient times
the Lancang live with her mother. They live with the very poor. They are both
worked as farm laborers.
            To improve his life, then The Lancang intend to leave. One day he asked permission from the mother and teacher ngajinya. His mother was advised that in the future shoreline The Lancang always remember the mothers and hometown. The Lancang advised that his mother should not be a rebellious child.
            The Lancang had promised his mother that. His mother cried when she became The Lancang worship knees to ask for blessings. His mother membekalinya pack of lumping dodak, Lancang Si favorite cake.After many years abroad, Lancang Si was very lucky. He became a wealthy merchant. It has dozens of merchant ships. Dikhabarkan he has seven wives. They all came from a wealthy merchant family. While his mother, still living in Kampar in very poor condition.
            On one day, The Lancang sailed to Andalas. In a voyage that he brings to seven wives. Together they brought too lavish supplies and tools in the form of musical entertainment. When docked in Kampar, musical instruments were sounded noisy. Meanwhile, silk cloth and various ornaments of gold and silver held. Overall it was prepared to increase the impression of luxury and wealth The Lancang.
            The arrival of Lancang news heard by his mother. With compassion, he rushed to greet her only child is. Because of poverty, he just wore an old cloth shawl, sarong kebaya worn and patched. With courage he rose to the deck of his luxury ship The Lancang. As soon as his mother claims he is The Lancang, no one believe sailor ever. With the ballpark he drove the old mother. But she did not want to move. He insisted to be reunited with his son Si Lancang. The situation caused a commotion.Hearing the commotion on the decks, The Lancang accompanied by his wife went to seventh place. How shocked he was when I saw that ragged woman who was expelled it was her mother. Lancang's mother said, "How dare you ... my son! Oh ... what a heart Mother missed you. Hearing the greeting it, with dismissed congkaknya Lancang. Son of even this lawless shouting," Where could I have a poor woman like your mother. Sailor! expel this crazy woman. "
            This poor mother finally came home devastated. Arriving at the house, then he took his own heritage. Heirloom rice in the form of mortar and a pestle nyiru. As he prayed, that dimples played and dikibas-swivel-kibaskannya nyiru inheritance. He also said, "my Lord ... punish the child's disobedience."
            In a flash, come down hurricane. The storm blows so fierce that in a moment destroy merchant ships owned by The Lancang. Not only the ship was shattered, his possessions are also flying everywhere. Silk cloth floated and dropped into the country Fold Fabrics located in Kampar Left. Gong was thrown into the Right and the Kampar River Oguong. Tembikarnya drifted into Pasubilah. While the mast of the ship was thrown up The Lancang up in a lake, named Lake Lancang Si.


Sigarlaki Si and Si Limbat

                In antiquity in Tondano there lived a mighty hunter named Sigarlaki. He is very famous for its expertise speared. None of the missed targets tombakannya.

          Sigarlaki have a very loyal servant named Limbat. Almost all the work ordered by Sigarlaki done well by Limbat. Although renowned as a reliable hunter, one day they were unable to obtain a single tail game. His frustration finally peaked when Si Limbat reported her employer that meat supplies in their homes have been lost stolen.

          Without thinking, he directly accused the maid's Sigarlaki who steal their supplies of meat. The Limbat be very surprised. Never expected her employer would have the heart to accuse him as a thief.

          Then Si Si Limbat Sigarlaki asked to prove that he is not stealing. The trick is Sigarlaki will stick his spear into a pond. Along with the Si Limbat sent diving. When the spear was first out of the pool means Si Limbat not steal. When The Limbat that out of the pool first then proved he was a steal.

          Terms strange it makes Si Limbat fear. But nevertheless he wishes to prove himself clean. Then he dived Sigarlaki plugging along with his spear.

          Just plug a spear, Sigarlaki suddenly saw a wild pig in the pond to drink. He immediately raised his spear and threw it toward the boar. Tombakan but it missed. Thus it should have lost Sigarlaki Si with Si Limbat. But he asked that the proof was repeated again.

          With a heavy heart Limbat The employer was eventually followed orders. Just stuck his spear in the pool, suddenly Sigarlaki foot bitten by a large crab. And he cried out in pain and not deliberately raised his spear. Thus finally The Limbat the win. He managed to prove he was not stealing. While Sigarlaki because of indiscriminate accusation, is punished bitten by a large crab.

Kanjeng Queen of Loro Kidul
           
            Tanah Jawi in the century (19th century), a prince of the kingdom Pajajaran, Joko Tell, met a hermit who ordered that he found the kingdom of Majapahit in East Java. Because of the hermit is a beautiful young woman, Joko Have fell in love with her. But the hermit who was an aunt of Joko Tell, named Ratna Suwida, rejected her love. When young, Ratna Suwida exile to meditate on a hill. Then he went to the south coast of Java and become a spiritual ruler there. He said to the prince, if the prince be a descendant of the ruler in the kingdom which is located near Mount Merapi, he will marry the ruler in turn.

          The next generation, Panembahan Senopati, the founder of the Mataram kingdom to-2, retreated to the South Coast, to collect all his energy, in an effort to prepare the military campaign against the northern kingdom. Kanjeng attention meditation Queen of South and he promised to help. For three days and three nights he learned the secret of the war and government, and love intrigues in the palace under the water, until finally emerged from Parangkusumo Sea, south of Yogyakarta today. Since then, Queen of South reported Senopati closely related to the descendants of the ruling, and the offerings presented to him at this place every year through a representative palace of Solo and Yogyakarta
.

Roro Jonggrang
            Once, in ancient times there was a large empire named Prambanan. Tenteran and its people live in peace. But, what happens then? Prambanan kingdom was attacked and colonized by Pengging country. Peace Kingdom of Prambanan be disturbed. The soldiers are not able to deal with attacks Pengging troops. Finally, the kingdom ruled by Pengging Prambanan, and led by Bondowoso.
                Bondowoso a bossy cruelly. "Anyone who does not obey my orders, will be sentenced to heavy!", Said Bondowoso on people. Bondowoso is a powerful and have the genie forces. Not long in power, Bondowoso liked watching the movements of Loro Jonggrang, daughter of King Prambanan beautiful. "Beautiful nian princess. I want him to be Permaisuriku," thought Bondowoso.
                The next day, Bondowoso near Roro Jonggrang. "You're beautiful, would you be Permaisuriku?", Tanya Bondowoso to Roro Jonggrang. Roro Jonggrang flinched, heard the question Bondowoso. "The man was very rude, do not know me instantly want to be queen," said Loro Jongrang in the liver. "What should I do?". Roro Jonggrang into confusion. His mind was spinning. If he refuses, then it will be furious Bondowoso and endanger his family and the people of Prambanan. Was not possible to say yes, because Loro Jonggrang did not like the Bondowoso.
                "How, Roro Jonggrang?" Bondowoso insisted. Jonggrang Roro finally get the idea. "I am willing to be your wife, but there are a prerequisite," he said. "What condition? Want treasures that abound? Or the magnificent Palace". "No, my lord, said Roro Jonggrang. I asked for the temple, the amount should be a thousand pieces." A thousand pieces? "Cried Bondowoso." Yes, and the temple had to be done overnight. "Roro Jonggrang Bondowoso staring, her lips quivering hold anger. Bondowoso Since then think how to make 1000 temples. Finally he asked his advisors. "I believe my master bias makes the temple with the help of Jin!", said the adviser. "Yes, I also have in mind, prepare the equipment I need!"
                After the equipment at the ready. Bondowoso standing in front of the altar stone. Her arms stretched out wide. "Forces jin, Help me!" he shouted in a booming voice. Soon, the sky became dark. The wind roared. A moment later, the troops had gathered Bondowoso genie. "What should we do sir?", The leader asked the genie. "Help me build a thousand temples," pleaded Bondowoso. The genie immediately move to and fro, carrying out their respective duties. In a short time the temple was composed nearly a thousand pieces.In the meantime, silently Roro Jonggrang observe from a distance. He is worried, knowing Bondowoso genie aided by troops. "Well, how is this?" Said Roro Jonggrang in the liver. He was looking reasonable. The ladies got together and sent royal assigned to collect hay. "Sooner burn all the straw that!" Roro Jonggrang command. Some other ladies sent to pound the mortar. Dung ... dung ... dung! Radiating red tinge to the sky to the sound of the hustle and bustle, so much like the dawn of the dawn.
                Jin forces thought the dawn was breaking. "Well, the sun will rise!" cried the genie. "We have to go before our body singed sun," continued another genie. The genie was rushed to leave the place. Bondowoso was surprised to see the Jinns troops panic.
                The next morning, Roro took Bondowoso Jonggrang to the temple. "The temple you're asking is standing!". Roro Jonggrang immediately calculate the amount of the temple. Apparently there were only 999 pieces!. "There's one less!" Loro Jonggrang exclaimed. "Then the master has failed to meet the requirements that I ask". Bondowoso surprised to learn that deficiency. He became very angry. "There's no way ...", Bondowoso said, staring intently at Roro Jonggrang. "Then you are to complete it!" he said, pointing his finger at Roro Jonggrang. Miraculous! Roro Jonggrang instantly turned into stone statues. Until now these temples still exist and are located in the area of ​​Prambanan, Central Java and called Roro Jonggrang Temple.

Petak Umpet
            When I was a child, I used to spend most of my time playing all kinds of games with my friends. Most of them were group games; a few of them were individual. I was keen on playing group games because it made more fun.
        I remember a game that was a favorite with almost every child in the village. This was petak umpet, or hide and seek.
        At four in the evening each day, my friends and I would gather at one place. Then, we would make two group, consisting of the same number of persons, and decided a base, usually a tree, after that, we drew to decided which group would hide and which group would seek. The seeker group gathered at the base and close theirs eyes. Meanwhile the other groups would run and hide. After counting to 10, the seeker group had to look for the member of the hiding group. Those who were caught would be placed at the base and would be guarded by a member of the seeker group. The seeker group won if they could catch all members of the hiding group. The hiding group won if they could touch the base without being caught by the guard.
        But now we have grown up. We not longer spend our free playing games. We prefer other hobbies like reading , cooking, and fishing.


Monkey eating mangosteen
Physically, he is a stocky young man. Body healthy and strong. But unfortunately, her performance seems chaotic. Her life has no clear direction. It works just hang out and hang out. Spending time with useless at the substation corner of the village with his friends. In fact, not infrequently, he just stared at it alone. He feels his life is useless after a few attempts he pioneered ultimately foundered in the middle of the road. Ever also, it works on others but eventually came out as well. Not feel at home because they feel always ruled.

        In the morning when everyone woke up and immediately went to their respective workplaces, youth is usually still asleep, and was about to wake up when it was noon. And with a step limp and a blank stare, he was going to the substation. That's the days that he went through. Flow without any meaning and benefits.

        One day, these youth are invited to hunt in the woods by his uncle. "Instead there's nothing you do, mending join uncle hunting deer in the woods," said the uncle. "How about it, okay?"

        He did not answer directly but instead complained, "well, why the hell jungle uncle, my ass still interesting in there?"

The Ant and the Grasshopper

In a field one summer's day a Grasshopper was hopping about, chirping and singing to its heart's content. An Ant passed by, bearing along with great toil an ear of corn he was taking to the nest.

        "Why not come and chat with me," said the Grasshopper, "instead of toiling and moiling in that way?"

        "I am helping to lay up food for the winter," said the Ant, "and recommend you to do the same."

        "Why bother about winter?" said the Grasshopper; "We have got plenty of food at present." But the Ant went on its way and continued its toil.

        When the winter came the Grasshopper had no food and found itself dying of hunger - while it saw the ants distributing every day corn and grain from the stores they had collected in the summer. Then the Grasshopper knew: It is best to prepare for days of need.

POSTAL MATTERS
The mail box can be yours doorway to the world. Because the connect each country. Through it you can go into nearly every country in the world. Each postage stamp becomes a personal messenger of your letter.
        If you letter, document, postcard, or package is going overseas, they will pass through many hands and perhaps many lands. It is the duty of our postal service to see that your mail gets to its destination as quickly as possible.
        Much of the world’s business depends upon the postal service. That’s why most nations cooperate closely on postal matters. The mail always goes through. A flood in China or India, or an earthquake in Turkey or Iran may cause a delay, but new routes are quickly found and mail is still delivered.
        Basically,  mail is handled in the same way in almost every country. A stamped letter is mailed from the post office or mail box. The mail is collected from the mailboxes on a regular schedule. All letters, postcards and small parcels are taken to a central post office which employ many people.

The occurrence of Lake Toba

          In antiquity, there lived an orphaned peasant boy in the northern part of Sumatra island. The area is very dry. Syahdan, the young man living from farming and fishing. One day he was fishing a fish that is very beautiful. The color is golden yellow. So holding, the fish turns into a beautiful princess. The Princess is a woman who was condemned for violating a ban. He will turn into a kind of creature that first touch. Because the human touch, then he turns into a princess.
          Fascinated by her beauty, the young farmer asked the princess to become his wife. Applications are accepted on condition that he was not going to tell you its origin from peasantry ikan. Pemuda it undertakes these terms. After a year, the couple was blessed with a son. He has a bad habit that is never satiated. He ate all the food there. One day the child was eating all the food from their parents. The young man was very annoyed said: "The basis of the offspring of fish!" That statement by itself unlock the secrets of such isterinya.Dengan their promise has been breached.His wife and son disappeared mysteriously. Their former footing menyemburlah ground springs. Water flowing from the springs are getting bigger and bigger. And became a vast lake. The lake now called Lake Toba.

Bibliography
Hutchinson, Tom. 1991. Hotline. London: Oxford University Press
Peterson. L. 2000. Front line. Madrid: Harrap’s
Collins Cobuild Series. 1995. English Usage. Fulham: The Collins Cobuild
Mitchell, H.Q. 2000. Say yes. Athens: MM Publications
Lukman Emalia Iraligiati. 2004. Headlight.Malang: Erlangga